NECO Biology Questions and Answers for 2023

Prepare for the 2023 NECO Biology exam with comprehensive questions and expertly crafted answers, providing valuable guidance and insights to help students prepare for Biology. Stay informed about the latest happenings, discover intriguing facts and gain valuable insights through interesting and informative general articles on Fresherslive!


The National Examinations Council (NECO) is the prominent examination body in Nigeria responsible for the conduct of two major examinations: the Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) and the General Certificate of Education (GCE). These exams play a vital role in the education system of the country and are conducted in two terms, June/July and November/December.

1. Matriculation Examination (SSCE):

SSCE is one of the most important examinations conducted by NECO. It is taken by students who have completed upper secondary education, usually at the end of their final year of secondary school. The exam assesses students’ knowledge and understanding of a variety of subjects, including core subjects such as math, English and science, as well as electives based on the student’s chosen areas of study. SSCE results are crucial for students’ progression in higher education, as they are often required for entry into university and other educational opportunities.

2. General Certificate of Education (GCE):

The General Certificate in Education (GCE) is another important examination conducted by NECO. Unlike the SSCE, the GCE is available to private candidates who are not enrolled in mainstream schools. It offers an opportunity to individuals who may have missed the opportunity to take the SSCE during their school years or wish to improve their grades. The GCE is available in both June/July and November/December, giving candidates the flexibility to choose the most convenient time to sit the exam.

Both the SSCE and GCE examinations are key to measuring students’ academic performance and providing a standardized assessment of their knowledge and skills. NECO plays a key role in ensuring the fairness and integrity of these reviews, maintaining strict protocols to prevent abuse and ensure the credibility of the results.

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NECO’s exam process involves thorough preparation, including exam questions, moderation and validation to ensure accuracy and adequacy of content. During the examination period, NECO supervises the conduct of examinations in various centers across Nigeria, ensuring that all procedures are followed and that the examination environment remains conducive and fair.

After the exam, NECO’s team of examiners diligently evaluate and grade the answer scripts, following established guidelines and marking schemes. This process is carried out with utmost care and transparency so that students get accurate and reliable results.

The results of the SSCE and GCE examinations are published to candidates and made available to schools, institutions and competent authorities for further evaluation and decision-making. Successful candidates receive certificates marking their achievements in the respective exams.

In conclusion, the National Examinations Council (NECO) is a vital institution in the Nigerian education system, which conducts the Secondary School Certificate of Education (SSCE) and General Certificate of Education (GCE) examinations to assess the academic ability of students. Through these exams, NECO plays a key role in shaping the educational future of students and providing a standardized measure of academic success across the country.

NECO Biology Questions and Answers 2023


and (i) the cell theory states that all living things are composed of the cell, which is the structural and functional unit of life. That new cells arise from already existing cells through cell division.


  • Robert Hooke
  • Matthias Schleiden

b (i)

  • The flowers are large
  • It has nectar
  • The flowers are brightly colored to attract pollination by insects.
  • Its pollen grains are heavy and sticky.


  • Ginger – rhizome
  • Banana – with a sucker
  • Sweet potato – per tuber

c. When the bread is swallowed in the mouth, batang mixes it with saliva containing ptyalin, turning it into maltose. It enters the muscular chamber of the stomach, bubbles up and stays for three to four hours. It then passes into the small intestine where it is acted upon by amylopsin to complete the breakdown to maltose and alkaline, intestinal juice that breaks down maltose to glucose. Glucose is absorbed and transported by capillaries to the liver, which processes it. Undigested food goes into the large intestine where water is absorbed and turns the waste into a semi-solid substance called feces. The faeces then pass into the rectum and exit the body through the anus.

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(4ai) (CHOOSE ANY THREE) (i) Crops with tap roots should be followed by those with fibrous root systems. (ii) Crop selection should be based on demand. (iii) Crop selection should be problem based. (iv) Selection of crops should match the financial conditions of the farmers.

(v) More exhausting crops should be followed by less exhausting crops.

(vi) Crops selected should also suit the soil and climatic conditions.

(vi) Crops selected should also suit the soil and climatic conditions.

(4aii) (CHOOSE ANY FIVE) (i) Presence of thick, waxy cuticles on the leaves: (ii) Stipes present only in the upper epidermis: (iii) Contraction of joint cells when flaccid: (iv) Gleaming succulent leaves: ( v ) Have reduced number of petioles: (vi) Indented petioles or presence of crypts and leaf surface covered with fine hairs. (vii) Closed stomata in the presence of light and open stomata in the absence of light: (viii) Leaves are reduced to spines, needles or scales and are folded or rolled when limp

(4bi) (i) Feathers: Feathers are modified scales that provide insulation and enable birds to fly. Some fossil reptiles, such as Archeopteryx and Microraptor, also had feathers, suggesting that they were an ancestral trait that evolved before the divergence of birds and reptiles. (ii) Bones: Birds have hollow bones which reduce their weight and increase their ability to fly. Some fossil reptiles, such as Coelophysis and Pterosaurs, also had hollow bones, indicating that they were an adaptation to a fast and agile lifestyle. (iii) Eggs: Birds lay hard-shelled eggs that protect their embryos from dehydration and predators. Reptiles also lay hard-shelled eggs, implying that they share a common reproductive strategy that dates back to their ancient ancestors.

(4bii) (CHOOSE ANY FIVE) (i) Regulates amino acids. ((ii) Regulates blood clothing (iii) Stores vitamins and minerals. (iv) Processes glucose (v) Filters blood (vi) Produces bile (vii) Produces albumin (viii) Resists infections.

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(4c) (CHOOSE ANY FOUR) (i) Afforestation. (ii) Afforestation (iii) Protection of existing forests. (iv) Sustainable yield method. (v) Produce less waste (vi) Monitor agriculture (vii) Planned and regulated felling of trees (viii) Laws and regulations help prevent deforestation.

(5bi) (CHOOSE ANY TWO) (i) The calyx protects the flowers in bud from external injury. (ii) Sepals are usually green in color, but sometimes they can be colored like petals, which attract insects and help in pollination.

(iii) In certain cases, the calyx develops a shoot and can store nectar and help in seed dispersal.

(5bii) (CHOOSE ANY FIVE) (i) Testosterone (ii) Thyroxine (iii) Estrogen (iv) Adrenaline (v) Epinephrine (vi) Progesterone (vii) Glucagon (viii) Growth Hormone (ix) Cortisol (x) Release gonadotropin hormone (GnRH).

(5ci) (CHOOSE ANY TWO) (i) Studies on inheritance (ii) Mapping of disease genes. (iii) Diagnosis and treatment. (iv) Genetic counseling.

(5cii) (CHOOSE ANY THREE) (i) Chloroplast contains a photosynthetic pigment called chlorophyll. (ii) Stomata are located on the back side of the leaves which help in regulating the water loss from the leaves. (iii) Leaves have a thin structure so that they can provide a short distance for the diffusion of carbon dioxide into the leaf cells (iv) Leaf veins help in the transport of maximum amount of water and water molecules to all parts of the leaf. (v) The plant produces larger leaves, which means more surface area for maximum absorption of sunlight.


NECO biology exam schedule 2023





Tuesday, July 11, 2023

Biology (practical)

10:00 a.m. – 12:00 p.m

Objective and essay




Tuesday, July 21, 2023Biology (Paper III and II: Objective and essay)10:00 a.m. – 12:30 p.m

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Categories: General
Source: HIS Education

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